Mr. Vilks was threatened repeatedly after the cartoon was published.
In 2010, he was assaulted while giving a lecture on free speech at Uppsala University in Sweden. That year, two brothers were also jailed after trying to burn down his house. In a separate case, a suicide bomber sent messages to several Swedish news organizations singling out Mr. Vilks before detonating two explosives in central Stockholm, killing himself.
In 2015, a gunman in Copenhagen attacked a cafe where Mr. Vilks was speaking at an event called “Art, Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression,” killing a filmmaker and wounding three police officers. One of the organizers of the event, Helle Merete Brix, said she believed Mr. Vilks had been the intended target, although he was unharmed in the shooting. The police later said they had shot and killed a man they believed was responsible for the attack at the cafe as well as another attack at a synagogue, where one person was killed.
After the attacks, Mr. Vilks traveled with armed bodyguards, according to The Associated Press. “It’s like starting a new life,” he said. “Everything has changed. I have to understand that I cannot go back home. I have to probably find some other place to live.”
Despite offending Muslims and the threats against his life, Mr. Vilks said he had no regrets over the cartoon. “I’m actually not interested in offending the prophet,” Mr. Vilks told The A.P. in 2010. “The point is actually to show that you can. There is nothing so holy you can’t offend it.”